Flag Leaf Spays Must be Applied This Week 29-05

 

Crop walkers come once a month or so and give a date by which fungicides should be applied.  Crops grow differently and clients must now walk the crops themselves to check the Critical Flag leaf Spray

 

January Sown Wheats  dependant on variety varies between flag leaf completely emerged to leaf 2 (2 being the leaf before flag leaf). There is very little disease about - warm conditions enabling susceptible crops to outgrow septoria.  Thus T2 flag leaf sprays will take place next week for most varieties.  It is specifically recommended for all wheats in a maize wheat: maize wheat rotation to receive an ear wash in addition.  In a dry summer there will be limited benefits to this spray for feed crops, but for once grown seed savers its ESSENTIAL.  The Following recommendations are per acre.

 

T2 Flag Leaf Emerged Apply 0.25 L Amistar with 0.15 L Opus per acre.

This is the most responsive and financially rewarding of all timings. On septoria Susceptible varieties apply 0.25L Amistar + 0.2L Opus Do not wait until the ear is out.

T3 Ear Fully out from the flag leaf but before flowering TIMING CRITICAL

For Fusarium Control in Seed Crops or in Maize Wheat Maize Wheat rotations which are prone to fusarium Amistar 0.1L per acre plus Folicur 0.15L or Caramba. 0.2L. Critical is timing - as soon as the ear is out spay - spaying has to be done before flowering.

 

How to recognise T2 - Count down from the topmost emerged emerging leaf down to the two dead leaves at the bottom of the plant. If you counted 5 leaves then the top leaf is Leaf 2.  If 6 were counted the top leaf is the flag leaf and will need spraying immediately. Some dead leaves at the bottom of the plant are dead tillers - these show a spindly stem at the base of the leaf - Ignore these.

 

The same fungicides & rates can be used on Spring / Winter Barley- albeit Winter barley is now mostly past spraying stage. The timing of T2 is when the awns are just visible. Barley is less prone to fusarium so the T3 Spray (ear wash) can be ignored. Conditions have been ripe for mildew, the main disease is Rhynchosporium.

 

ALKALAGE vs. Fermented Whole Crop Wheat: A contractor with a Claas Whole Crop Mill and Combine Header - may be beneficial in a drought year

There is no financial & nutritional justification for whole crop wheat at the expense of Maize when there is no AAAid ground to be had - on or of the farm. That said:

Fermented Wholecrop wheat at 40% DM 25% Starch harvested at brie-cheddar cheese stage suffers a yield penalty of approx 25% vs. Alkalage at 50+% DM. Alkalage is sterilised with Urea, Liquid Urea or above 60-65% DM with 30-40kg Dugdales Home and dry (Mix of Ammonium Bicarbonate, Urea and Urease - the ammonia releasing enzyme) BUT to date Alkalage suffered the penalty of a 25% reduction in feed value (25% more disappeared out the rear of the cow as undigested grains and less digestible straw). In practice intakes are higher with alkalage but there has been no trial production response vs. Fermented Wholecrop.

The main benefits of Alkalage over Fermented Whole Crop are

harvested over a longer window - even when mature - providing crop is moistened ie drizzled on.

Limited clamp face spoilage - limited waste in a sterile clamp killed with ammonia - suits summer feeding.

Alkali - potentially encouraging intake in high producing herds and Dry Cows

The above view was appropriate before deployment in 2000 with 20 UK contractors (none in Cornwall in 2000) of the 1999 Class whole crop processing mill - giving improved performance over the corn cracker by a more aggressive action. To date there has been limited trials work. With beef (which can digest whole grains anyway - not a good trial) and maybe a one or two year trial with MDC sponsorship that started last summer. If trials results confirm the promise of the mill then we have a situation where - at least for grain starch digestibility overall diet performance may be improved. In my experience with corn crackered Whole crop wheat substituting for maize - the results are disappointing. Used as a fibre compliment to Maize and grass silage - or at grass at high yield there is a small nutritional benefit - most benefit is financial.

Other than the summer calving grazing situation I prefer wheat - as a crop to be harvested conventionally - as grain and straw - and then take a view - subject to other feeds available to include straw or not. In most cases the inclusion of straw limits production and produces more dung. Straw is Best reserved for the loose housed growing heifer. In a dry year when silage is expensive, heifers ad lib fed straw plus 4 kg gluten wins hands down - all other silages being reserved for the cows. Alkalage is much more flexible in that it can be harvested over a much longer window. I see no point in forage harvesting "earage" and then having to cut and bale the straw. Grain can be combined at 30% or less moisture, rewetted in a TMR and treated with Urea to be fed whole to cows.

Milled Beans There may be potential for the mill to be used effectively with Field Beans harvested as grain ensiled in the Maize Clamp thus removing the need for combining, crimping + acid / innoculant treatment- expensive and not effective in a salvage crop. Arrange the bean harvest a day or two before the maize harvest. Beans pods grow in the top half of the plant - so there is going to be indigestible scratch factor included.

For those businesses without AAAid or spare acreages for strict financial and labour reasons straw should never be fed except in emergency and it's bedding use restricted to calving and calves pens. For Straw read Big Bale Silage Big Bale Silage - Big Bale Silage. Time and time again the difference between a cow having a Displaced Abomasum or Milk fever or not is down to "did they have big bale silage?"  Big Bale silage is best made from reasonably mature no potash applied 2nd cuts wilted to 35+% dry matter.  Targets are for 35-50% DM 2% Potassium or less,  Crude protein 14% or less, NDF ~ 55%.  Big Bales fills up the rumen - and wont blow udders.

 

Straights:

Technical short forward buying by the majors and strong $ means that the spot market for all but Prairie meal continues as it has done for many months to be disadvantageous. Forward prices have risen. Prices for - HiPro soya give it a slight advantage to Braz & Arg Soya. Clients have been advised to take summer and winter positions. Prairie meal (360 68% Protein) is now price competitive with Sopralin / Soypass (280-90 -50%CP) - and is a good source of bypass methionine - but low lysine. ONLY Where clients rations are predominantly based at high yield on this seasons previous lows for soya, then Lysine supply is likely satisfactory and inclusion of Prairie meal or other maize based by product is indicated. If there is insufficient Lysine - there will be no response to methionine. - period.

A farmers Nutritional Focus

 

Transport

Tipped

 

Blown

Miles

15-20

25t

15-20

1-10

6.0

4.8

7.8

11-20

6.6

5.0

8.7

21-30

7.4

5.4

9.4

51-60

9.6

6.7

12.5

101-110

13.0

8.1

16.4

151-160

15.9

10.7

 

1

Spot

3-9mo

9-15mo

Hi pro Soya

166

154

154

Braz 48% soya

169

153

153

Arg Soya

150

143

143

GM 1% Braz free soya

 

164

164

Rapemeal

107

99

102

Maize distillers

112

99

99

Gluten

87

81

82

Cerestar Gluten

80

77

 

Palm Kernel

60

59

60

32/33% Sun pellets

97

96

100

Citrus

78

76

75

Wheatfeed

59

69

73

Groundnut

142

140

142

Maize germ

108

101

 

Prairie meal

360

377

380

Molasses

85

85

 

78% Energy: ensure maximum forage intake potential by maximum rumen safe fermentation (28-35% DM Grass / 28-32% Maize silages + wheat and citrus / beet) Rumen bugs supply the "fish & no bone meal " cows need & must have enough fermentable energy to work with low cost rumen degradable protein sources. There are always intake problems grazing grass & wet silage.

17% Protein supply sufficient Degradable and Undegradable Lysine rich protein in the form of Soya +/- rape to satisfy rumen bug needs whilst ensuring Milk Ureas are sub 350 - particularly where intakes of forages (energy) are questionable.

2% Bypass Protein Meet the shortfall (over 8 - 9000L dependant on forage) in rumen protein production by highly Undegradable protein sources such as Fish, Treated Soya (Soypass Sopralin) & where Lysine satisfied, and there is room in the diet wheat germ, maize germ, maize distillers, or Prairie meal - otherwise synthetic methionine - eg Smartamine.

1% Oil: Caustic Linseed at 1kg in the diet is usually price competitive to Wheat and Soya. US trials show Linseed oil to have the same beneficial effect on the quality of OVA (eggs) and hormonal profile as Fish oil. Rape oil does not. Rapepro, Rapetec, Lintec made near Hull are of course convenient but expensive and sources of Undegradable protein. The best fats otherwise are those based on the Calcium soaps of palm oil - ie Megalac. Care should be taken particularly with Maize silage Based diets not to exceed 250-350 g of unprotected oil as this can depress intake and fat production. Minerals - the easiest to get right.