|Fusarium ear disease causes
seedling death - up to 50% and can lead to production of Vomitoxins
(DON) prior to storage in the ear. Specifically, DON is not found in
meat and milk.
Take home Messages
Pink-Orange staining is found in the ear and grain.
During grain fill, the ear will have a white empty top and green body.
This is Fusarium.
Fusarium is soil and seed borne - Maize Wheat Maize
Wheat rotations are at greatest risk - with Hunter one of the worst
Claire & Shamrock are more resistant - and are
preferred varieties for Maize Wheat rotations
If saving seed, at least do a germination test -
preferably a NIAB Fusarium test - and treat if infection above
5%. Losses can be up to 50%. Feed no more than 20% of the
total ration as wheat, whether infected or not; and start cautiously and
gradually increase inclusion rates to the calculated maximum. If toxins
are found the ration should contain no more than 4ppm per kg ration dry
|There are 4 forms of Fusarium,
a belt and braces ear wash at ear emergence with Caramba (a new
triazole) and Amistar (a strobilin) gives reasonable control of all
forms and is essential if saving for seed.
Triazoles control those Fusarium species producing
Toxins but encourages the development of Microdochium nivale - which is
most associated with seedling blight and poor emergence.
Toxins occur rarely, and high levels of Fusarium ear
blight in Maize Wheat rotations are not a good indicator of likely toxin
GET A SEED TEST DONE Seed Rates: sow from Mid October
at 3/4's cwt per acre The simple rule of thumb for Autumn planting is to
add 50% germination / plant losses to the spring plant populations
required below to give seeds per square metre.
From a known thousand seed weight of 45grams the
equation is for a late October - mid November drilling in a good seedbed
after Maize. Sowing in September in Cornwall is generally not
advised - highest yields are normally achieved from mid October -
November. Barley is better from September to Mid October. Where seed is
lower than 5% Fusarium untreated or otherwise dressed, sow at 3/4's cwt
Optimum no. of plants/sq m in spring
by end Sept
by Mid Oct
by mid Nov
1.5 x 140 = 210 seeds to achieve 140 plants in spring
(210 x 45) / 100 = 95 kg seeds / ha
61 x 0.405= 38kg seeds per ac
38 x 0.16 = 6 Stone per acre 6 /8 = 3/4 cwt per acre
Most farmers typically drill at 11/4's cwt per acre -
thats half a cwt over the top - £7.50 to much. Home saved
seed valued at £100 costs £3.80 versus £11.40 purchased sown at 3/4's
cwt per acre